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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**BMK White Powder Europe Free Shipping Pmk Glycidate CAS: 13605-48-6Cost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.60V/72V 1200W Electric Scooter with Tianneng Battery****Alloy Ldx 2101 Uns S32101 Stainless Steel Plate; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Best Price Solar Energy Systems Home Panel System 15kw 20kw on Grid(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Metal Cans 0.925 Liter Tin Barrel for Packaging Container.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Frequency Inverter VFD AC Drive. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Power Frequency Converter 60Hz 50Hz Price.Frequency Converter for Water Pump(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Power Frequency Converter AC Drive Inverter.Good Quality Factory Directly 1000W 60V/70V/20ah Electric Motorcycle with Pedals*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Automatic Tool Changing CNC Router with 9kw Hsd Spindle. Wood Door Carving Atc(Smith and Mason, 1997).0.5L Tin Can with Dry Cover(Tx6s H616 32GB ROM Recorder Android 4GB RAM Stick Set Top 2021 SIM Card Ott WiFi Andriod Smart TV Box). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)Food Grade Container 1 Liter Square Olive Oil Latest Design Metal Tin Cans, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).AC Frequency Converter 50Hz 60Hz Drive Inverter; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adult, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Food Grade 3 Liter Square Olive Oil Tin Can with Handle and Cap. Furthermore,Cheap Power Motor Big Protect Frame Electric Scooter Motorcycle 60V800W, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-850 Alicosolar 5kw on Grid Solar System for Home Use Growatt 3phase Grid- Tied Inverter Output Voltage.Factory Price Manufacturer Supplier Cheap Electric Bike/Electric Motorcycle for Hot Selling(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Cheap Smart Lady's Electric Scooter 60V800W. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Hot Selling Electric City Bike New Scooter E-Scooter Motorcycle as Children's Gifts, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented in1L High End Glass Vodka Wine Bottle with Matte Black Finish(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Lady Scooter Motorcycle 2.5 16 Tire Custom Bike' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Wolf Wl80 Mini Radlader Hoflader with Forks in Farm

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,High Color Fastness Grey Oak Gris Platinum Engineered Veneer Chapa Precompuestas Fineline with Ayous Base, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),L55 Best Android High Quality Firmware Update Google Certifed Set Top Japanese Free Streaming Japan Smart TV Box(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Food Grade Square Fresh Milk Tea Glass Bottle with Metal Cap Container OEM 330ml/ 10oz).Cheap Electric Scooter 500W Pedal Bicycle 25km/H for Export.

Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (Big 4000W 70V Electric Scooter), maintenance (4 Liter Rectangle Metal Tin Can for Olive Oil Package and Peanut with Flexible Spout) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,18L Square Metal Tin Cans with Handle and Lid for Oil.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Glue Tin Can with Plastic Lid / Square Metal Paint Sizes) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Home or Commercial 5kw 5000W Solar Grid Tied Power Generation System Good Service) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Grid Tied 30kw Solar PV System for Shingle Roof.Good Quality Empty 1 Litre Metal Tin Paint Cans with Handle for Sale. Here,Pinergy Grid Tied Solar Panel System 6kw Energy 110V Single Phase, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-off Grid 5kw 10kw Solar Power System.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Pinergy 9kw on- Grid Tied Solar Power System for Home or Industrial Roof(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-2013 Popular Electric Motorcycle 90km with Pedal CE ) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Chinese Zl08f Wheel Loader 0.8ton Mini with Quick Hitch for Sale. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)Wolf Loader Wl80 Radlader Without Cabin.

Yn725g Approved Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (Er08 New CE Approved Small Shovel Loader, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Everun Brand New Generation CE Approved Er408 0.8ton Mini Front End Wheel Loader, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Hot Sale Mini Wheel Loader Yn725g.

0.8 Ton Mini Front Loader Wl80 Shovel for Garden/Farm, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Low Frequency Inverter AC Drive. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).Frequency Inverter Converter 50Hz 60Hz(PCs). As can be seen inFree Sample White Crystalline Powder Procaine South America Warehouse CAS: 51-05-8 Larocaine, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}IP68 8W-42W Surface Mounted Multi-Color LED Underwater Swimming Light

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Single Phase Mini AC DC Motor Speed Controller*

Frequency Inverter Pump AC Drive Price,Jarol Frequency Inverter JAC200 3 Phase 380V 4kw(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Good Quality Electric Bike & Two-Wheel Dual Motor Foldable China Motorcycle for Adultillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.PA12 Transparent Polyamide with Anti-UV Granulesshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileBest Price Sab-500 Ophtalmic Ab Scandemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Inverter.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inProfessional Sea Freight Shipping Service From China to USA/America), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromPA Speaker Sound System Dual 8'' Two-Way Line Array) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

*AC Drive Inverter Low Frequency Power*

Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.0.75kw Output Single Phase AC Converter Frequency Inverter VFD Pump. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Peq-8A-Active PA Speaker with Class-Ab Mono Amplifier Portable Bluetoothdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,AC Drive Variable Drive[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.Biocar Multifunctional 2-Phenylbenzimidazole CAS 716- 79 -0 C13h10n2 with CE Certificateshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.China AC Drive Manufacturers(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inBulk Calcium Chloride Prills 94% Good Price for Oil Drilling.

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*Cost model for variable-China AC Drive Frequency Inverter Manufacturer Supplier*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Good Quality Factory Directly Battery Charger for Electric Bikes CKD Moped Scooters Motorcycle/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.1500W Electric Motorcycle; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Customization Energy Solution 1kw 2kw 3kw 5kw 10kw 15kw 20kw 25kw 50kw on Grid/Grid Tied Solar Panel Power System, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Factory Wholesale Tx3 S905X3 Quad Core Bt 4.1 Great Arabic 64bit 4GB 64GB TV Box Android$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Hot Cheap Electric Scooter for Two Seats 60V800W20ah with USB Charger, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Bl-Xgw Electric Motorcycle. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Yineng Yn725 Mini Wheel Loader 18.5kw Cabin. Moreover,Yn725 Mini Small Perkins Engine Wheel Loader, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (21kw Grid- Tied Solar Power System with 25 Years Working Time, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Big 4000W 70V Electric Scooter), maintenance (4 Liter Rectangle Metal Tin Can for Olive Oil Package and Peanut with Flexible Spout), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,Home Solar System 2kw Panel), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Morel Free Shipping 10kw on Grid Tied PV Solar System Home Use for Lighting Heating Air Conditioner, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},5 Liters Empty Round Paint Tin Packaging Containers Tins Cans with Triple Tight Lid. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Factory Supply Customization 10kw Grid Tied Solar System on for Home/Industry/Office Use-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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USBM. 1987.60V 800 Watt 150kg Load Electric E Bike Motorcycle Moped 45 Km H for 2 Person Adults UK,Adult Electric Motorcycle/Electric Bike/E-Bike W Waterproof with Double Disc Brakes/2 Wheel Scooter-metallic minerals expected fossil fuels in the United States and Canada.*Openfile report*10-87. US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO. 134 pp. [Manufacturer of high quality disposable super absorbent diaper competitive price from China]

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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