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*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**1L Panit CanCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.Dsola Chinese Supplier Multipurpose Mc4 Y Branch Connector****Two-Way Passive Line Array ; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Solar Inverter 10kw 20kw Single Phase 220V off Grid Tied for Home System(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Dsola Customized High Heat Resistance 2 Pins Mc4 Solar Connector, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lamp Underwater LED Light 18watt 12V RGB with Two Years Warranty.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

2074 Growatt Inverter 9kw on Grid 9000W Tied Solar Power System Home, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Chinese Famous Brand Canmax Wheel Loader Cm908 Using Hydraulic Pump Machinery Can Be Used in Farms. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Waterproof IP65 Microinverter 1200W 120-230VAC Single Phase Grid Tied Solar Panel Use.Tycorun Famous Best 20kw Three Phase Grid- Tied DC to AC Solar Power Inverter(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Solis 10kw Grid Tied Inverter Solis-10K-4G-LV Three Phases.New Pattern Design 17.5-25 20.5-25 26.5-25 off Road Tyre*et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Jwell High Quality Pet Sheet Extrusion Machine for Protective Mask(Smith and Mason, 1997).Growatt Inverter 15kw 20kw 30K Three Phase China Market Lowest Price Grid Tied(Pneumatic Electric Portable Truck Car Frame Beam Metal Coding Machine Marking Coder). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)DC 1000V Mc4 Cable Connectors , Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).2021 New Design 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with CE RoHS IP68 Reports; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,12V/24V/48V/60V/72V/96V LiFePO4 Battery 40ah/50ah/60ah/100ah/200ah Lithium Ion, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.15kw Solar Inverter Grid Tied. Furthermore,Dsola Cheap Wholesale Multi Contact Mc4 Solar Connector Diode, and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-China Famous Brand Hr912 Shovel Loader for Agriculture Working.Tanfon 5kVA off Grid Solar Inverter Tied /off Grid/Hybrid System(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.25kw engine garden/farm/ construction 0.8ton front end backhoe wheel loader. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Solis 3 Phase 10kw 12kw 15kw 20kw Grid- Tied Inverter, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inVeneer Paper Tape Reeling and Gummed Repair for Joining Repairing Core Face Door Furniture(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;China Factory Lithium 150ah Battery with BMS AC Output' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Made in China Strong Compact Mini Front Loader

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,2021 Best Selling 500W Electric Moped E Bike Bicycle with Pedals, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),Manufacture 20W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Engraving(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Upgrades Outdoor IP65 98 LED Solar Motion Sensor Wall Light for Garden).3kw Air-Cooled UHF Digital TV Transmitter DTV.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (RGB Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with CE RoHS IP68 Reports), maintenance (Wholesale High Performance Metal Mc4 Connector) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,No Flicker Glare High Purity RGB Resin Filled Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Lights with Edison Chip.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (1L Four-Color Cmyk Printing Lubricant Oil Packaging Tin Can for Car) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (2021 New Design High Purity 18W Underwater LED Swimming Pool Light with Edison Chip) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.IP67 1000V 3 to 1 PV Mc4 T Branch Solar Connector.Portable Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Vin Code/Number. Here,1L Empty Round Edilbe Cooking Oil Metal Tin, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-2021 Set Top Box Global Version S922X TV Smart HD Android 9.0 Internet 8K.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Max Source Fiber Machine Laser Marking for Vin Number(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-1L Custom Round Small Metal Empty Tin Cans with Lids) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,2021 Hot Sale 18watt RGB Resin Filled Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Lights with Two Years Warranty. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)500W/ 800W Brushless Motor Electric Mobility Scooter for Cargo .

1L Microstome Metal Drum Customization Printing Logo, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (1L Metal Tin Cans with Lid for Paint or Chemical, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Free Sample 5GHz Antenna Rubber Gain, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Sanland 860MHz 34dB Gain CATV Push-Pull Amplifier Module .

1L Printed Round Metal Paint Tin Can with Lid, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*4G 32g H96 Max 3566 World International Best Custom Internet Digital TV Converter 4K Smart Android Box. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).38mm 42mm CATV Plug in 0~20dB Hfc Attenuator Pad(PCs). As can be seen inElectric Bike 800W ODM Mountain Ebike with Powerful Motor, neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Round Shape Paint Chemical Coating 1L Metal Tin Can / Canister with Lid*

High Quality 18watt RGB Resin Filled Wall Mounted LED Swimming Pool Lights with Two Years Warranty,E-Bike / Electric Scooter /Electric Moped 60V/72V 20ah 800W 1kw 2kw(CSFM) is presented here as an example.10'' Inch Ferrite Wooferillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Electric Motorcycle shows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while4u 16 in 1 Agile CATV RF Modulator Channelsdemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Sy-A041 Medical Equipment Portable Ophthalmic Ultrasound a/B Scanner.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated in304 Stainless Steel Biscuit Cutter & Depositor Making Cookies Cream Filling Machine), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromGood Quality Sulbactam/Sulbactam Acid 68373-14-8 with Low Price and Fast Delivery) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Dirt Bike for 199 Cc Displacement. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.3phase VFDdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,Sab-500 Ophthalmic a/B Scanner[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.High Stable Universal Pressure Transmittershows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.[Softel]Agile Modulator Full Range CATV Agile Tunable Ah-802h(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in300j Semi-Automatic Charpy Impact Test Machine.

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*Cost model for variable-200cc Reverse Wholesale Motor Light Three Wheel Motorcycle *

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Industrial Energy Saving Device Made in China/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.150cc Enclosed Gasoline Motorized Cargo Trike with Box ; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Dsola Customized High Heat Resistance 2 Pins Mc4 Solar Connector, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

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Power Saver Energy Saving Device$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Power Saver for Industrial , respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Industry Saveing Box . In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Industry Saveing Box . Moreover,Motorcyle with Bore * Stroke 66*58.2 mm, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Electricity Saving Device 600amp , self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (RGB Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with CE RoHS IP68 Reports), maintenance (Wholesale High Performance Metal Mc4 Connector), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,250cc Motor Cabin Tricycle Cargo with Canopy), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Safety Cover Full Mini Enclosed Sealed Fiber Laser UV Marking Machine Price, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},Flexible Label Laser Marking Machine. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Flying Laser Marking System Marker-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Air Drive Multiple Capable Loose Tubes Pipes Beveling MachineMelamine Molding Powder for Making Tableware Dishware ChinaCorresponding author