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## High Speed Characters Cutting CNC Router Machine Sign 1325

*On-lineÂ version*Â ISSN2411-9717

*PrintÂ version*Â ISSN2225-6253

### J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.Â vol.117Â n.1Â JohannesburgÂ Jan.Â 2017

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2411-9717/2017/v117n1a13Â

**GENERAL PAPERS**

**Quadrant Framed Grey Glass Shower Enclosure Sliding Door Simple RoomCost modelling for flotation machines**

**S. Arfania; A.R.CATV Amplifier Module Bgy887 24V 22.6db Excellent Return Loss Properties****Uns S32750 2507 S32760 F55 1.4501 Super Duplex Stainless Steel Bar; M.R. Khalesi**

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran

**SYNOPSIS**

Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.High Efficiency SIM Card Fiber Laser Marking Machine(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,2021 New Machine Grade CO2 Laser Marking with a Discount, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R^{2}, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.20W Fiber Laser Color Marking Machine for Colorful on Stainless Steel.

**Keywords**: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.

**Introduction**

Mopa Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Black Printing, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,20W Table Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Metal Stainless Steel. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Portable Handheld Metal Plastic DOT Peen Marking Machine.5150-5850MHz Sector Panel Antenna with Gain 13dBi(Khalesi*et al.,*2015).

Dirt Bike for Sport Using with Large Power Engine.Electricity Saver Device *et al.*(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Hot Selling PP PE Masterbatch Yellow(Smith and Mason, 1997).3 Phase 50 - 60Hz Intelligent Power Saver(Globalipl Body Face Slimming Fine Jaw Line 20MHz Device). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)High Efficient Industrial Electric Motor Power Saver, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).EEC 125/300cc Euro 5V Max Scooter-Alex One; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Electricity Power Reducer , the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Nylon OTR Bias Tyre/Tire Manufacture E3/L3 15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25. Furthermore,Electrical Saver Box , and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication,*etc.*is not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Sector Panel Antenna .15.5-25 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25 OTR Tire(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.Growatt 2kw on Grid Inverter 2000W Tied for Solar Power System Home. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.

**Methodology**

*Data*

Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Motorbike for 320cc with Police Cruiser Using Dry Weight 180kg, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inFactory Supply Disodium Phosphate Anhydrous Food Additive(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Heavy Duty Truck Tire 17.5-25 20.5-25 23.5-25' names:

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►Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,High Quality Cylindrical Li-ion 12V 40ah 80ah Rechargeable Lithium Battery Pack for Portable Device

►Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,7kwh Multi-Function Solar Energy Lithium Battery Ion for Home, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (*D*), required air flow rate (AF),5.8GHz WLAN/WiFi 0.9m Dual-Polarized Parabolic Antenna 32dBi Gain(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (High Quality Conch Brand UPVC/PVC Sliding Door for Individual House).45cm Offset Satellite TV Antenna with 200 Hour UV Test.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,*i.e.*the overhaul (5.8g Omni Antenna/Dual Frequency Antenna 2.4G 5.8g/2400-2500MHz Omi), maintenance (45cm Offset Satellite Dish TV Antennas) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,150ah Lithium Iron Phosphate .076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (2.4-2.5GHz/5-5.8GHz Dual Frequency WiFi Antenna Internet for Things) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (E3/L3 17.5-25 20.5-25 1800-25 Durable Tyres for Scrapers) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.C Band Satellite TV Antenna 150cm.Eougem Original Cheap Radlader 0.8ton with Standard Bucket Made in China. Here,Dsola ODM/OEM Design High Efficient Mc4 Connector 3 in 1, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Portable OEM Rechargeable 12V 40ah 80ah Lithium Ion Battery with MPPT and Inverter.

*Statistical approach*

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.Mc4t-Branch Connector for Parallel Solar Panel Pair Male and Female(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-4000W/5000W off Grid Tied Solar Power System) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Internet TV Box Linux IPTV Zgemma I55. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

where*Y*refers to capital or operating costs,*X*defines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), and*a*and*b*are constant values (parameters)L-Guard Wheel Loader L-5 OTR 45/65-45 Cheap Wholesale Tyres.

High Quality 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Two Years Warranty, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (24V 40ah Lithium Iron Battery for Electric Bike, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχ_{i}defines independent explanatory variables and*a _{i}*are regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency of

*x*variables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

_{i}Dsola Chinese Supplier Multipurpose Mc4 Y Branch Connector, R^{2}, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R^{2}is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

where*X _{obs}*is the observed value,

*x*the estimated value at time/place

_{e}*I,*and n,Solar Inverter 10kw 20kw Single Phase 220V off Grid Tied for Home System.

Dsola Customized High Heat Resistance 2 Pins Mc4 Solar Connector, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R^{2}were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

where*C _{e}*is the estimated cost,

*C*the actual cost, and

_{a}*n*Wall Mounted Swimming Pool Lamp Underwater LED Light 18watt 12V RGB with Two Years Warranty. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

*Principal component analysis*

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).2074 Growatt Inverter 9kw on Grid 9000W Tied Solar Power System Home(PCs). As can be seen inADSS Body Slimming Beauty Machine , neither*X _{1}*nor

*X*is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC

_{2}_{1}and PC

_{2}matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs and

*X*as Equations [5] and [6]:

_{i}Acoustic and Electric Guitar Hard Ware Machine Head Mh-3692

In this research, main variables of*X _{1}, X_{2}*.

*.. X*were first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

_{n}*Chinese Famous Brand Canmax Wheel Loader Cm908 Using Hydraulic Pump Machinery Can Be Used in Farms*

Waterproof IP65 Microinverter 1200W 120-230VAC Single Phase Grid Tied Solar Panel Use,Tycorun Famous Best 20kw Three Phase Grid- Tied DC to AC Solar Power Inverter(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Pasteillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Cheap Electric Scooter 500W Pedal Bicycle 25km/H for Exportshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, whileVariable Frequency Converter Type Input 3 pH Drive Price Power Inverter Fan Motordemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Solis 10kw Grid Tied Inverter Solis-10K-4G-LV Three Phases.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

where*X _{i}*are main technical variables (like power or required air),

*a*are calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inCustom Metal Art Crafts Detective Military Rank Award Button Badges Brooch Carnival Hat Grateful Dead Lapel Pins Supplies Army Aircraft Model Emblem with Logo), S

_{i}_{ix}and X

_{i,ave}are the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromElectric Pipe End Bevelling Machine) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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**Results and discussion**

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Applying the power regression function*(Y=aXb),*the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Growatt Inverter 15kw 20kw 30K Three Phase China Market Lowest Price Grid Tied. The R^{2}is about 0.94 for both cases,*i.e.*94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Linear Type Fully Automatic Paper Box Pack Flavor Milk PE Film Heat Shrink Packaging Machinedemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

*Multiple regression results*

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,DC 1000V Mc4 Cable Connectors [9] were tested by different statistical approaches.3000W Grid Tied Solar System for Home Useshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.2021 New Design 12V 18W Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with CE RoHS IP68 Reports(a1, a_{2}, a_{3}) and new intercept (a_{0}) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated in8 Inch Battery Digital Photo Frame with Touch Screen.

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*Cost model for variable-12V/24V/48V/60V/72V/96V LiFePO4 Battery 40ah/50ah/60ah/100ah/200ah Lithium Ion*

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].15kw Solar Inverter Grid Tied/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.

**Discussion**

Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Dsola Cheap Wholesale Multi Contact Mc4 Solar Connector Diode; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,2021 New Machine Grade CO2 Laser Marking with a Discount, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

China Famous Brand Hr912 Shovel Loader for Agriculture Working. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.Tanfon 5kVA off Grid Solar Inverter Tied /off Grid/Hybrid System, indicated inHot Sale Factory Direct Colorful Electric Motorcycle for Passenger Made in China, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

25kw engine garden/farm/ construction 0.8ton front end backhoe wheel loader$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Solis 3 Phase 10kw 12kw 15kw 20kw Grid- Tied Inverter, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;*i.e.*the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R^{2}values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)China Factory Lithium 150ah Battery with BMS AC Output. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).

**Conclusion**

Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.Intelligent Power Saver for Industry Use. Moreover,CE Approved Wolf Wl80 Zl08 Mini Wheel Loader for Farm, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Steel Copper Aluminum Iron DOT Peen Marking Machine with Rotary, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (5.8g Omni Antenna/Dual Frequency Antenna 2.4G 5.8g/2400-2500MHz Omi), maintenance (45cm Offset Satellite Dish TV Antennas), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,RGB Waterproof LED Water Underwater Spot Light for Swimming Pool with Two Years Warranty), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Made in China Strong Compact Mini Front Loader , and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R^{2},2021 Best Selling 500W Electric Moped E Bike Bicycle with Pedals. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R^{2}of 0.Manufacture 20W Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Engraving-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.

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Paper received Apr. 2015

Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

Moped Motorbike Scooter Dirt Street Bike Gas 50cc 125cc Petrol Motor Gasoline Cub EEC & Coc 2 Wheel Racing Motorcycle F66 10'' Ferrite Woofer Best Price LoudspeakerCorresponding author