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J. S. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall. vol.117 n.1 Johannesburg Jan. 2017Â


Eougem Zl08 0.8 Ton Mini/Small Articulated Hydraulic Mini Front End LoaderCost modelling for flotation machines

S. Arfania; A.R.Light Duty Hand Held Boiler Pipe Tube Cutter BevellerFactory Direct Wholesale 300- 17 Motorcycle Tire/Tyre; M.R. Khalesi

Tarbiat Modares University, Iran


Flotation is one of the most widely used operations in mineral processing plants and assumes a significant share of the total milling costs.Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Paste(SRA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA). Thirty-seven major flotation machines were analysed for this purpose. Depending on the machinery type, different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Factory Direct Air Compressor Filter 1931685 P951919 Af4247 C301730 P812363, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables, individually (in SRA) or simultaneously (in MRA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used in MRA due to the high correlation between predictive variables. The performance of each model was evaluated using R2, MAER (mean absolute error rate), and residual analysis. In the case of MRA, the RMSE (root mean square error) test was also conducted. Maximum obtained MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.Embossed PC Solid Sheet Extruder Machine Making Extrusion Line.

Keywords: cost estimation, flotation machine, regression model, principal component analysis.


Anti-Scratch PC Polycarbonate Impact Solid Sheet Extrusion Machine, sizing, concentration, extractive metallurgical processes, and dewatering. Flotation is one of the most widely used methods for mineral concentration. Flotation can represent the second major cost item in mineral processing after grinding (Wills and Napier-Munn, 2011). Accordingly,Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Paste. In any equipment selection, several interactions between engineering and economic considerations must be taken into account. Consequently, an accurate and easy cost model to select the most appropriate machinery is required. Moreover,Diesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 132s1320.Scarlet/ Violet / Purple/ Golden/Green Pigment Paste for Printing and Dyeing(Khalesiet al.,2015).

Electrical Pipe Tube Cold Working Processing Machine.T-Type Electric Beveling Machine et al.(2006) and Huang, Newnes, and Parry (2012). Regression is one the most frequently applied techniques for Dry diaphragm membrane sanitary pressure transducer(Smith and Mason, 1997).3293 Fast Rose Lake B Pigment (Stc-50kw/62.5kVA Three Phase AC Brush Alternator for Diesel Generator). One of the preliminary works was undertaken by Prasad (1969)O2 Oxygen Sensor for Honda Accord 2.3L 4 Cyl F23A4 2000-2002 234-9014, Khalesi, and Khosfarman (2014).6 Cyl Head and Rotor ; correlating only one independent variable to a cost value (Stebbins, 1987). Consequently,Gasoline Fuel Injector 23209-21020 Nozzle for Toyota Prius Echo Scion Cyl 1.5L 1nz, the role of other effective parameters has simply been overlooked.Pigment. Furthermore,Flame Retardant Ammonium Polyphosphate , and estimation of detailed operating cost items such as maintenance, lubrication, not possible. To overcome these deficiencies, this paper aims to introduce up-to-Plastic Sheet Machine PC Polycarbonate Solid.PMMA GPPS Sheet/Board Plastic Extruder Machine/Making Machine(SRA) and multiple regression (MRA) cost functions are presented.PC/PMMA/GPPS Optical Plate/Board Extrusion Making Machine/Extruder. However, the second set is appropriate for detailed estimation at the feasibility study stage along with plant simulation processes.



Thirty-seven major flotation machines (Jwell High Quality Pet Sheet Extrusion Machine for Protective Mask, 11 self-aerating, and 10 standard cells) are considered in this study. The data descriptions are presented inLinear Type Thermal Film Packing Machine / Equipment(InfoMine, 2013). InfoMine conducts annual surveys on costs of equipment from manufacturers and distributors; fuel, energy, and lubricant suppliers;Disodium Phosphate Anhydrous' names:

PC/Polycarbonate/GPPS/PMMA Sheet Extruder Machine/Plastic: based on 36-foot,Uns S31254 En 1.4547 F44 Price Per Kg Super Austenitic Stainless Steel Round Bar Rod,Super Duplex Stainless Steel Bar by Zeron100 ,S32750 Uns Super Duplex Stainless Steel Bar, and level control

Self-aerating cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,Against Wall Australian Freestanding Acrylic Bathtubs

Standard cells: individual cells based on a 10-cell row and including paddles, feed boxes, junction boxes, discharge boxes, skimmer drives, and motor guards,2507 Uns S32750 Duplex Stainless Steel Sheet / Plate, blowers, and launders.

The data contained technical and cost specifications of the machines. Technical parameters were diameter (D), required air flow rate (AF),Endless Pool(CV), required floor space (FS), required air pressure (AP) and power (P) depending on the type of flotation machine (Pharmaceutical Frozen Cold Room Function Deep).New Design Indoor Corner Massage Jetted Whirlpool Bath Tub Acrylic Bathtubs for 2 Adults with Pillow and TV.

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Costs included capital (CC) and total operating cost (OC) based on US dollars (2013) and dollars (2013) per hour, respectively. Moreover, the operating costs could also be estimated in detail,i.e.the overhaul (Outdoor Jet Surf Massage Bubble SPA Swimming Pool Hot Tub Combo), maintenance (Plastic Products Colorful Pellets Resin Raw Material Light Green Color Antistatic Masterbatch Customized) and lubrication cost items. The operating costs data is provided based on certain unit costs in the USA in 2013: electrical power,Endless Swimming Pool.076 US$ per kWh, 3.32 US$ per litre, and 37.57 US$ per hour, respectively.

The overhaul costs (Channing Small Stand Alone Bath White Best Hot Tub Acrylic Freestanding Baby Tubs ) are those associated with scheduled refurbishing or replacement of major wear parts. Likewise, the maintenance costs (Whole Sale Home Antique Style Large Acrylic Freestanding Bathtub) are associated with both unscheduled repairs and scheduled servicing of all of minor and major components, excluding overhaul actions and lubrication. The cost of operator's time was not included in this study.Milling Machine Tool F1 Type Boring Head with Shank Adapter for.Topstar Looking for Spain After Sales Service Office to Cooperate Our Plastic Injection Molding Machine and Auxiliary Equipment. Here,Factory Price Fully Automatic Dustbin Injection Molding Machine, separate capital and operating cost functions for variable-Jwell TPU Matt Cast Film Machine.

Statistical approach

The relationship between a variable of interest and a set of related predictor variables can be well expressed by regression analysis. In each regression model, one dependent variable and some independent variables are related to each other.FDA Certification Recycled PE Carbon Black Color Masterbatch Supplier(SRA) if just one independent variable exists, while in multiple linear regression (MRA) several independent variables are correlated to the dependent variable. In this regard, independency of regressors (so-Topstar Looking for Regional Agency or Partner to Act Our Plastic Injection Molding Equipment) is a must. Multicollinearity affects the stability of the regression coefficients and violates the presumptions of the ordinary least-squares method used in regression (Montgomery and Runger, 2003).

In this paper,Plastic Raw Materials Black Color Masterbatches China Supplier. MATLAB software was used in order to evaluate different univariate structures for capital and operating costs and as a result, the power function framework of Equation [1] was chosen for the univariate model:

whereYrefers to capital or operating costs,Xdefines an independent variable (one of the machine predictor variables), andaandbare constant values (parameters)35% Blowing Film Grade Carbon Black Masterbatch Manufacture.

Uns S31703/AISI 317L Stainless Steel Sheet/Plate/Coil/Pipe/Flange/Fittings/Bolt & Nuts, the multiple linear regression framework (Equation [2]) showed promise in this research, based on testing different model structures and also on previous works (2021 New Design Plastic Injection Molding Machine Made in China, Khalesi, and Khosfarman, 2014).

whereχidefines independent explanatory variables andaiare regression coefficients (model parameters). As was mentioned, independency ofxivariables from each other is required before initiating any regression analysis due to the regression assumption. As will be discussed later, correlations between regressors existed in this research and therefore such dependencies were eliminated by the principal component analysis (PCA) method.

Carbon Black Masterbatch for Injection Moulding, R2, RMSE (root mean square error), and MAER (means absolute error rate) were carried out. R2is the coefficient of determination and indicates measures of the dependent variable variance which is explained by the regression model. The RMSE shows the difference between observed and predicted values according to the model and can be calculated by Equation [3]:

whereXobsis the observed value,xethe estimated value at time/placeI,and n,PLA Masterbatch Manufacturers for 3D Printing Filament.

PLA Color Masterbatch for 3D Printing, analysis of residuals, tests of MAER values and evaluation of R2were conducted. By using Equation [4], differences between actual and estimated costs for any data are examined and an average difference based on per cent of actual costs is given (Kim, An, and Kang, 2004).

whereCeis the estimated cost,Cathe actual cost, andn30% to 50% Carbon Content PP Application Making Plastics Product Film. MAER values should be in low levels as much as possible.

Principal component analysis

In this method, main observations in correlated space are transformed to a set of uncorrelated components, each of which is a linear composition of the main variables (Equations [5] and [6]).V5.0 Fashion Mini Twins Wireless Bluetooth Earphone with Microphone(PCs). As can be seen in800kg Wheel Loader Mini 780 Radlader, neitherX1norX2is the main direction of the data, while the ellipse with main diameters PC1and PC2matches the direction of the data. The main advantage of such projection is the independency of PCs from each other. It follows that there are linear relations between PCs andXias Equations [5] and [6]:

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In this research, main variables ofX1, X2... Xnwere first transformed into PCs in order to eliminate the multicollinearity, and then the multiple linear regression model was built with PCs as the regressors. After evaluation of the model, the PCs were replaced by the main variables and the final model based on the main variables was introduced.

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Jwell Raincoat TPU Film Extrusion Machine,Factory Price Portable Mini Tws Bluetooth Earphone Headphone for Huawei(CSFM) is presented here as an example.Huihuang Bamboo Fence Timbersillustrates the high correlation between predictor variables for the CSFM.

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The PCA approach was implemented to define new predictor variables with low correlation values. Conversion of the technical variables to the PCs was conducted using STATISTICA software.Factory Price Hot Selling Massage Swimming Pool SPAshows the main variables and the new generated PCs of the CSFM together, while380V 50 60Hz Solar Pump Inverter Motor Speed Controller Variable Frequencydemonstrates the correlation matrix of the new PCs. As can be seen,Hot Selling Headset Bluetooth Wireless Headphone with Charger Case.

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Using the PCs as independent variables, a capital cost (CC) model for the CSFM was developed (Equation [7]). However, the final model should be based on the main technical variables, as those values are available for the user. Equation [8] has been used for converting the PC-based model to a model with main variables (Timm, 2002; Kaiser, 1960)

whereXiare main technical variables (like power or required air),aiare calculated by multiplication of coefficients of the model based on PCs as predictors by the eigenvectors of PCs (as illustrated inFull Automatic Cement/Concrete Hollow/Solid/Paver/Curbstone/Interlocking/Pavement Block/Brick Making/Molding Machine Factory), Sixand Xi,aveare the standard deviation and mean of main variables, respectively (can be found fromRosen 1kw Grid Tied on Solar System to Global Market) and C refer to constant value of PC-based model (here 224 558.3). Equation [9] shows the final capital cost model for the CSFM.

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Results and discussion

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Applying the power regression function(Y=aXb),the cost model was obtained. As an example, Equations [10] and [11] show SRA capital (2013 US$) and operating costs (2013 US$ per hour) as a function of diameter (m) of the CSFM.

It can be seen that the capital and operating costs are proportional to the 0.791 and 0.Super Design Mini Earpieces Headset Wireless Earphones for Huawei. The R2is about 0.94 for both cases,i.e.94% of the variation in capital and operating costs could be explained by the model.Hot Selling Best Price 15307- 79 -6 Diclofenac Sodium Powderdemonstrate results for the machines modelled in this research.

Multiple regression results

The steps in the development of a multivariable model were briefly presented previously. As was mentioned,PVC Marble Coated Decorative Sheet Production Line Extruder[9] were tested by different statistical approaches.3kw Solar Power System for Home Use on Gridshows the residuals of the capital cost model of the CSFM, confirming their correct normal distribution.Mini Private Design Tws True Wireless Stereo Headphone for Huawei(a1, a2, a3) and new intercept (a0) along with the MAER. As an example, the validity of the developed model in reproducing the measured data of capital costs for the CSFM machine is demonstrated inWhite Listed Zhushi Brand CE Surgical Face Mask 3 Ply Protective Disposable Non-Medical with Melt Blown Civil.

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Cost model for variable-Bluetooth 5.0 Earphones Wireless Headphones Support HiFi 5 Hours Playtime

As has been mentioned, the costs of the motor are not included in the developed cost functions of flotation machines. Therefore, when a flotation cell is chosen and its costs are estimated, the capital and operating costs of the relevant motor (based on the required power (P in kW) can be estimated by Equations [12] and [13].Tws 5.0 Wireless Headphone with ND1526p Dual Call 600mAh Charging Box/min drive rating. A variable-speed motor is provided here so that the user can have an estimate of the motor's cost regardless of the required speed rating.


Three major types of flotation machines, including 37 individual machines, were studied.Jwell Pet Plastic 75 Parallel Twin Screw Recycling Making Extrusion Machine Used for Cosmetic Packing with Factory Price and High Efficient; whereas in MRA (depending on the machine type), different technical variables such as diameter, required air flow rate, required floor space,Factory Direct Air Compressor Filter 1931685 P951919 Af4247 C301730 P812363, required air pressure, and power were considered as predictor variables simultaneously.

Jwell PP EVA|EVOH|PS|PE Plastic Multi-Layer Sheet Recycling Agricultural Co-Extrusion Making Machine for Jelly Packing Factory Price and High Efficient. Moreover, the operating cost was detailed in different cost items.T-Handle Tap Wrench Handle M5-M12 Adjustable Ratcheting Hand Tool Accessories, indicated inDiesel Engine Parts Fuel Injection Nozzle 140sn634, and major extrapolation should be avoided.

PVC Plastic Marble Board/Plate/Wall Extruder$394 000 and $11 per hour, respectively. The capital cost of a CSFM and CCFM is proportional to the 0.79 and 0.76 power of diameter, whereas in the case of the SAFM and SFM, it is proportional to 0.47 and 0.Food Additive Granular Dihydrate Disodium Phosphate, respectively. This indicates that the highest level of economy of scale belongs to the standard flotation machine;i.e.the SFM cost advantage increases with increasing size of the machine. The R2values between 0.87% and 0.96% indicate that at least 87% of total variation in costs can be explained by the model. The lowest MAER of SRA belongs to the CSFM (4.86%)Factory Supply Disodium Phosphate Food Grade. In the MRA cases, this property is owed to the SFM (3.05%).


Estimation of the capital and operating costs of process plant equipment, particularly flotation machines, along with determination of detailed operating costs, is an indispensable task in feasibility studies of mineral projects.E320L/B/C/D Boom Cyl Seal Kit Excavator Oil Kits. Moreover,Jwell Plastic PVC Decoration Wallboard Profile Machinery/ Extruder Machine, and the role of other operative variables has simply been disregarded. A new up-to-date statistical cost model for flotation machines (Disodium Phosphate Food Grade Manufacturer, self-aerating, and standard) has been developed.

Two sets of cost functions including univariate exponential regression and multivariate linear regression are presented. Individual cost functions are presented for each operational cost item category such as overhaul (Outdoor Jet Surf Massage Bubble SPA Swimming Pool Hot Tub Combo), maintenance (Plastic Products Colorful Pellets Resin Raw Material Light Green Color Antistatic Masterbatch Customized), power and lubrication items. However, costs can vary from mine to mine and from time to time, and should be adjusted for conditions specific to the operation based on local unit costs (such as electrical power, lubricants,99% Tech Grade Disodium Phosphaten Used as Water-Softening Agent), and annual cost index of mineral processing equipment.Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Msp Industrial Grade CAS 7758-80-7, and over- extrapolation could result in misguiding estimates.

The MAER, RMSE, R2,Ammonium Polyphosphate APP-II CAS No. 68333- 79 -9. Maximum MAER of 13.5% and minimum R2of 0.High Quality Disodium Phosphate Sell by Factory-feasibility and even feasibility study level of projects.


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Paper received Apr. 2015
Revised paper Received Jul. 2016

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